One of the methods we employ for machining is turning. This process involves rotating, diagonal, linear and curvilinear movements. With reference to technological matters, we can distinguish the main operating movements (rotation of the workpiece), auxiliary operating movements (linear movement of a tool) and setting movements (preparation for cutting).
In turning, the main operating movements are performed by the workpiece, which is rotated by the spindle of the machine (lathe or table – in vertical turning and boring mills) while the auxiliary movements are performed by the tool. The combination of these two movements causes the relative movement of the tool against the workpiece. In the case of face surfaces the movement is spiral, while in the case of cylindrical and conical surfaces it is helical. Turning is significantly influenced by the general machining parameters, which include speed, depth, feed and power. These parameters, combined with the use of high quality machines, help to achieve the desired effect.
Turning is usually used for processing internal and external surfaces. At times, this process may also be used for workpiece faces. This method of machining is usually chosen when the required component is cylindrical, conical or round.